Here, you can find some links to tutorials for Frequency Synthesizers and Frequency Synthesis Techniques.
By Frequency Synthesizer we usually mean a stable signal generator which can be switced to put out any one of a discrete set of frequencies and whose frequency stability is derived from a standard oscillator. At least three techniques are used for Frequency Synthesis:
- Direct Synthesis is a popular technique which uses frequency multipliers, frequency dividers and mixers.
- Indirect Synthesis is based upon phase locked loops (PLLs).
- Direct Digital Synthesis uses a digital accumulator to produce a staircase sawtooth. A lookup table then changes the sawtooth to a staircase sinusoid and a D-to-A converter provides the analog output.
Digital Signal Processing is one of the most powerful technologies that will shape science and engineering in the twenty-first century. DSP is everywhere: In image and audio processing, in telecommunications, in radars, in medical science and seismology, in space...